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Drug Design and Optimisation

Prof Dr Anna K. H. Hirsch

The Hirsch group adopts a target-based rational design strategy focusing on biologically relevant, often underexplored enzymes, transporters and regulators within bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The group employs a variety of biophysical methods to investigate compound–target interactions and has established several in vitro and cell-based assays for straightforward evaluation of novel anti-infectives and multiparameter optimisation.

Our research and approach

The emergence of drug-resistant strains of human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, S. aureus or S. pneumoniae is a recognised threat to human health and urgently calls for the development of new antibacterial agents with novel modes of action. The department DDOP adopts a target-based strategy focussing on a portfolio of two types of drug targets.

The first group comprises targets which impair vital mechanisms within the bacteria and effectively kill them. One example is the enzyme DXS which plays a crucial role in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway, which is essential for the biosynthesis of universal isoprenoid precursors in many gram-negative pathogens, but absent from humans. The second group comprises targets interfering with pathogenicity and virulence without affecting bacterial viability. These pathoblockers are believed to cause a lower rate of resistance development, whilst leaving the commensal microbiota untouched.

The Hirsch group applies a series of established hit-identification strategies, including structure- and fragment-based drug design, classical medicinal chemistry and virtual screening. In addition, pioneering of innovative protein-templated methods such as dynamic combinatorial chemistry and kinetic target-guided synthesis in terms of the scope of chemical reactions, biological targets and synergistic combinations addresses key bottlenecks. Use of established and innovative techniques to design, synthesize and profile the most promising inhibitors enables efficient subsequent multiparameter optimisation as well as elucidation of the mode of action.

Scientists in the interdisciplinary team have diverse backgrounds such as medicinal chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, pharmacy, pharmacology, biology or biochemistry, resulting in a diverse skill set.

Team members

Research projects

Due to the rapidly increasing number of pathogenic bacteria being resistant to common antibiotics, the development of new antibacterial agents is urgently needed. To address these problems, the Hirsch group adopts a strategy based on the rational design and synthesis of anti-infectives with novel modes of action. In this context, the group is focusing on a portfolio of biologically relevant, ideally underexplored enzymes, transporters and regulators within bacterial pathogens. These drug targets can be grouped into those that impair vital mechanisms within the bacterium and effectively kill them (e.g., ECF-T, DnaN and DXS) and those that interfere with the pathogenicity and virulence without affecting bacterial viability (e.g., ColH and LasB). 

The group employs a variety of biophysical methods to identify novel hit compounds and to investigate compound–target interactions. Various in vitro and cell-based assays, the generation of in silico data and the co-crystallization of selected compounds with their targets support the straightforward evaluation of novel anti-infectives and their further optimisation by classical and innovative medicinal chemistry approaches.

Below you will find an overview of selected targets we are currently addressing and to which we apply the above-mentioned strategies:

ECF-T

The energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins involved in the uptake of vitamins by a wide range of bacteria. Inhibition of the activity of these proteins could reduce the viability of organisms that depend on vitamin uptake, including pathogenic species such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecium. As these bacteria cannot synthesize important vitamins such as folic acid, pantothenate and niacin de novo, they depend on ECF transporters to take them up from the environment. Due to this central role in the metabolism of bacteria, ECF transporters are novel potential antimicrobial targets to tackle infection. Recently we identified the first classes of selective antibacterial agents showing promising inhibition of the ECF transporters. We are currently trying to further develop these compounds.

MEP pathway (target: DXS, IspE):

The methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is a rich, underexplored source of anti-infective targets that are absent from humans but essential in many pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and plants. This opens up the possibility of developing highly selective inhibitors that are active against clinically relevant pathogens such as four ESKAPE pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp., all of which have highest priority according to the WHO Global Priority List of antibiotic-resistant bacteria – as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum. In these pathogens, the MEP pathway is the sole source of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The latter are the universal building blocks for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, a large and diverse class of natural products fulfilling a myriad of indispensable functions. With DXS, IspD, IspE we address three essential enzymes of this pathway. Our best compounds are highly active against the mentioned pathogens and show nanomolar IC50 values.

DnaN

Antibacterial drugs targeting essential multi-enzyme complexes are less prone to resistance development, since their malfunctioning is hard to bypass. In this context, the bacterial replisome machinery, which consists of at least twelve interacting enzymes that are highly conserved in bacteria, contains several attractive and promising antibacterial targets – including the bacterial β-sliding clamp DnaN. DnaN is a crucial subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, preventing polymerase dissociation and enhancing polymerase activity. Furthermore, the β-sliding clamp shows interactions with a variety of other enzymes involved in replication and DNA repair processes. Its important functionality in the replication process and its highly conserved structure across bacterial species and its significant structural divergence to the mammalian counterpart (PCNA) make DnaN an attractive target for the treatment of various pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the natural product griselimycin (GM), a known DnaN binder, we adopted a semisynthetic approach, which resulted in a set of GM derivatives with promising antibacterial activities. Furthermore, we identified diverse small organic molecules binding to DnaN. The optimization of the most promising compounds is ongoing.

ColH

Clostridia represent a family of ubiquitously occurring gram-positive bacteria comprising perilous pathogens causing serious infectious diseases. The high lethality of these bacteria is related to collagenases, which are crucial for clostridial virulence, given their critical role in colonisation and evasion of host immune defence, acquisition of nutrients, facilitation of dissemination, or tissue damage during infection. The inhibition of these extracellular collagenases is conceptually attractive, as it does not attack the pathogen directly but rather blocks the colonisation and infiltration of the host by the clostridia. Targeting extracellular enzymes has the added benefit that inhibitors do not need to cross the bacterial cell wall, which has been challenging in many cases. Clostridial collagenases are zinc metalloproteinases with a multi-domain organisation, homologues of which are also found in many bacilli. Our group was the first who published compounds showing not only a highly potent inhibition of clostridial and bacillal collagenases (ColH IC50 in nM range) but also a strong selectivity over human MMPs.

LasB

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a highly problematic gram-negative pathogen, which has been assigned critical priority by the WHO, is responsible for many nosocomial infections. The opportunistic pathogen is also commonly found in burns, and in lungs of COPD and cystic fibrosis patients. PA-derived virulence factors play pivotal roles in mechanisms mediating its pathogenesis and infectivity. The strategy to develop “pathoblockers” targeting such virulence factors is expected to leave the commensal microbiome intact and to be less prone to the development of resistance compared to conventional antibiotics. One of the major virulence factors of PA is the extracellular zinc-metalloprotease elastase LasB. LasB substantially contributes to disease progression in PA-infected individuals by facilitating host invasion and immune evasion, and was furthermore reported to be involved in the formation of PA biofilms. Inhibition of LasB is a promising strategy to effectively reduce virulence of PA without affecting viability of the pathogen and the host microbiome. Our most promising LasB inhibitors show nanomolar IC50 values and a promising safety profile.

Publications

2020

7-Hydroxycoumarins are Affinity-based Fluorescent Probes for Competitive Binding Studies of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

Xiao Z, Chen D, Song S, van der Vlag R, van der Wouden P, van Merkerk R, Cool R, Hirsch A, Melgert B, Quax W, Poelarends G, Dekker F (2020)

Journal of medicinal chemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01160

pH-Dependent morphology and optical properties of lysine-derived molecular biodynamers

Lee S, Kaya C, Jang H, Koch M, Loretz B, Buhler E, Lehr C, Hirsch A (2020)

Mater. Chem. Front., 4 (3): 905-909DOI: 10.1039/C9QM00651F

Rapid Discovery of Aspartyl Protease Inhibitors Using an Anchoring Approach

Markella Konstantinidou, Francesca Magari, Fandi Sutanto, Jörg Haupenthal, Varsha R. Jumde, M. Yagiz Ünver, Andreas Heine, Carlos Jamie Camacho, Anna K. H. Hirsch, Gerhard Klebe, Alexander Dömling (2020)

ChemMedChem, 15 (8): 680-684DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.202000024

Optimized Inhibitors of MDM2 via an Attempted Protein‐Templated Reductive Amination

Vlag R, Yagiz Unver M, Felicetti T, Twarda-Clapa A, Kassim F, Ermis C, Neochoritis C, Musielak B, Labuzek B, Dömling A, Holak T, Hirsch A (2020)

ChemMedChem, 15 (4): 370-375DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201900574

Validating the 1,2-Difluoro Motif As a Hybrid Bioisostere of CF3 and Et Using Matrix Metalloproteinases As Structural Probes

Erdeljac N, Thiehoff C, Jumde R, Daniliuc C, Höppner S, Faust A, Hirsch A, Gilmour R (2020)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 63 (11): 6225-6237DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00648

Protein‐Templated Hit Identification via an Ugi Four‐Component Reaction

Mancini F, Unver M, Elgaher W, Jumde V, Alhayek A, Lukat P, Herrmann J, Witte M, Köck M, Blankenfeldt W, Müller R, Hirsch A (2020)

Chem. Eur. J.DOI: 10.1002/chem.202002250

N -Aryl-3-mercaptosuccinimides as Antivirulence Agents Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elastase and Clostridium Collagenases

Konstantinovic J, Yahiaoui S, Alhayek A, Haupenthal J, Schönauer E, Andreas A, Kany A, Müller R, Koehnke J, Berger F, …, Brandstetter H, Hirsch A (2020)

J. Med. Chem., 63 (15): 8359-8368DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00584

Flotillin-mediated membrane fluidity controls peptidoglycan synthesis and MreB movement

Zielinska A, Savietto A, Sousa Borges A, Martinez D, Berbon M, Roelofsen J, Hartman A, Boer R, van der Klei I, Hirsch A, …, Bramkamp M, Scheffers D (2020)

eLife, 9DOI: 10.7554/eLife.57179

Potential Dental Biofilm Inhibitors: Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry Affords Sugar-Based Molecules that Target Bacterial Glucosyltransferase

Hartman A, Jumde V, Elgaher W, Te Poele E, Dijkhuizen L, Hirsch A (2020)

ChemMedChemDOI: 10.1002/cmdc.202000222

A rapid synthesis of low-nanomolar divalent LecA inhibitors in four linear steps from d -galactose pentaacetate

Zahorska E, Kuhaudomlarp S, Minervini S, Yousaf S, Lepsik M, Kinsinger T, Hirsch A, Imberty A, Titz A (2020)

Chem. Commun., 56 (62): 8822-8825DOI: 10.1039/d0cc03490h

Enhancing Glycan Stability via Site-Selective Fluorination: Modulating Substrate Orientation by Molecular Design

Axer A, Jumde R, Adam S, Faust A, Schäfers M, Fobker M, Koehnke J, Hirsch A, Gilmour R (2020)

BookDOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.12656210

Hit-Optimization Using Target-Directed Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry: Development of Inhibitors of the Anti-Infective Target 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase

Jumde R, Guardigni M, Gierse R, Alhayek A, Zhu D, Hamed Z, Johannsen S, Elgaher W, Haupenthal J, Hirsch A (2020)

BookDOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.12681761.v1

Tracheal brush cells release acetylcholine in response to bitter tastants for paracrine and autocrine signaling

Hollenhorst M, Jurastow I, Nandigama R, Appenzeller S, Li L, Vogel J, Wiederhold S, Althaus M, Empting M, Altmüller J, …, Saliba A, Krasteva-Christ G (2020)

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 34 (1): 316-332DOI: 10.1096/fj.201901314RR

BOPC1 Enantiomers Preparation and HuR Interaction Study. From Molecular Modeling to a Curious DEEP-STD NMR Application

Della Volpe S, Listro R, Parafioriti M, Di Giacomo M, Rossi D, Ambrosio F, Costa G, Alcaro S, Ortuso F, Hirsch A, Vasile F, Collina S (2020)

ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 11 (5): 883-888DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00659

Discovery of Antibacterial Agents Inhibiting the Energy-Coupling Factor (ECF) Transporters by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

Diamanti E, Setyawati I, Bousis S, mojas l, Swier l, Haupenthal J, Gibson P, Volz C, stanek w, Jaeger m, …, slotboom d, Hirsch A (2020)

BookDOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.11728710.v1

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-Substituted ­Analogues of (–)-Pentenomycin I

Zisopoulou S, Bousis S, Haupenthal J, Herrmann J, Müller R, Hirsch A, Komiotis D, Gallos J, Stathakis C (2020)

Synlett, 31 (05): 475-481DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1690772

2019

Comparing the Self-Assembly of Sexiphenyl-Dicarbonitrile on Graphite and Graphene on Cu(111)

Schmidt N, Li J, Gottardi S, Moreno-Lopez J, Enache M, Monjas L, van der Vlag R, Havenith R, Hirsch A, Stöhr M (2019)

Chem. Eur. J., 25 (19): 5065-5070DOI: 10.1002/chem.201806312

Inverting Small Molecule–Protein Recognition by the Fluorine Gauche Effect: Selectivity Regulated by Multiple H→F Bioisosterism

Bentler P, Bergander K, Daniliuc C, Mück-Lichtenfeld C, Jumde R, Hirsch A, Gilmour R (2019)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 58 (32): 10990-10994DOI: 10.1002/anie.201905452

Spray-drying of inhalable, multifunctional formulations for the treatment of biofilms formed in cystic fibrosis

Lababidi N, Ofosu Kissi E, Elgaher W, Sigal V, Haupenthal J, Schwarz B, Hirsch A, Rades T, Schneider M (2019)

Journal of Controlled Release, 314: 62-71DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.10.038

Energy-Coupling Factor Transporters as Novel Antimicrobial Targets

Bousis S, Setyawati I, Diamanti E, slotboom d, Hirsch A (2019)

Adv. Therap., 2 (2)DOI: 10.1002/adtp.201800066

Protein-Templated Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry: Brief Overview and Experimental Protocol

Hartman A, Gierse R, Hirsch A (2019)

Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2019 (22): 3581-3590DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201900327

Concepts and Core Principles of Fragment-Based Drug Design

Kirsch P, Hartman A, Hirsch A, Empting M (2019)

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24 (23)DOI: 10.3390/molecules24234309

Novel Compounds Targeting the RNA-Binding Protein HuR. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Interaction Studies

Della Volpe S, Nasti R, Queirolo M, Unver M, Jumde V, Dömling A, Vasile F, Potenza D, Ambrosio F, Costa G, …, Hirsch A, Collina S (2019)

ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 10 (4): 615-620DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00600

A combinatorial approach for the discovery of drug-like inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase-1

van der Vlag R, Guo H, Hapko U, Eleftheriadis N, Monjas L, Dekker F, Hirsch A (2019)

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 174: 45-55DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.04.021

Rational Adaptation of L3MBTL1 Inhibitors to Create Small-Molecule Cbx7 Antagonists

Simhadri C, Daze K, Douglas S, Milosevich N, Monjas L, Dev A, Brown T, Hirsch A, Wulff J, Hof F (2019)

ChemMedChem, 14 (15): 1444-1456DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201900021

Low-Dimensional Metal-Organic Coordination Structures on Graphene

Li J, Solianyk L, Schmidt N, Baker B, Gottardi S, Moreno Lopez J, Enache M, Monjas L, van der Vlag R, Havenith R, Hirsch A, Stöhr M (2019)

The journal of physical chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and interfaces, 123 (20): 12730-12735DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b00326

Novel 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Inhibitor Protects Macrophages from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytotoxicity

Guo H, Verhoek I, Prins G, van der Vlag R, van der Wouden P, van Merkerk R, Quax W, Olinga P, Hirsch A, Dekker F (2019)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 62 (9): 4624-4637DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00212

Replacement of an Indole Scaffold Targeting Human 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Using Combinatorial Chemistry

Prismawan D, van der Vlag R, Guo H, Dekker F, Hirsch A (2019)

HCA, 102 (5)DOI: 10.1002/hlca.201900040

Reversible immobilization of a protein to a gold surface through multiple host-guest interactions

Schwarz D, Elgaher W, Hollemeyer K, Hirsch A, Wenz G (2019)

J. Mater. Chem. B, 7 (40): 6148-6155DOI: 10.1039/c9tb00560a

From Wood to Tetrahydro-2-benzazepines in Three Waste-Free Steps: Modular Synthesis of Biologically Active Lignin-Derived Scaffolds

Elangovan S, Afanasenko A, Haupenthal J, Sun Z, Liu Y, Hirsch A, Barta K (2019)

ACS Cent. Sci., 5 (10): 1707-1716DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.9b00781

Surface state tunable energy and mass renormalization from homothetic quantum dot arrays

Piquero-Zulaica I, Li J, Abd El-Fattah Z, Solianyk L, Gallardo I, Monjas L, Hirsch A, Arnau A, Ortega J, Stöhr M, Lobo-Checa J (2019)

Nanoscale, 11 (48): 23132-23138DOI: 10.1039/C9NR07365E

2018

Lipid-DNAs as Solubilizers of m THPC

Liu Y, de Vries J, Liu Q, Hartman A, Wieland G, Wieczorek S, Börner H, Wiehe A, Buhler E, Stuart M, …, Herrmann A, Hirsch A (2018)

Chem. Eur. J., 24 (4): 798-802DOI: 10.1002/chem.201705206

Exploration of ligand binding modes towards the identification of compounds targeting HuR: a combined STD-NMR and Molecular Modelling approach

Vasile F, Della Volpe S, Ambrosio F, Costa G, Unver M, Zucal C, Rossi D, Martino E, Provenzani A, Hirsch A, …, Potenza D, Collina S (2018)

Sci Rep, 8 (1)DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32084-z

Druggability Assessment of Targets Used in Kinetic Target-Guided Synthesis

Unver M, Gierse R, Ritchie H, Hirsch A (2018)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 61 (21): 9395-9409DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00266

Phage Display on the Anti-infective Target 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate Synthase Leads to an Acceptor-Substrate Competitive Peptidic Inhibitor

Marcozzi A, Masini T, Di Zhu, Pesce D, Illarionov B, Fischer M, Herrmann A, Hirsch A (2018)

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 19 (1): 58-65DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201700402

Glucansucrase (mutant) enzymes from Lactobacillus reuteri 180 efficiently transglucosylate Stevia component rebaudioside A, resulting in a superior taste

Te Poele E, Devlamynck T, Jäger M, Gerwig G, van de Walle D, Dewettinck K, Hirsch A, Kamerling J, Soetaert W, Dijkhuizen L (2018)

Sci. Rep., 8 (1)DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-19622-5

Delivery system for budesonide based on lipid-DNA

Liu Y, Bos I, Oenema T, Meurs H, Maarsingh H, Hirsch A (2018)

Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 130: 123-127DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.06.012

Dynamic Proteoids Generated From Dipeptide-Based Monomers

Liu Y, Stuart M, Buhler E, Hirsch A (2018)

Macromolecular rapid communications, 39 (13)DOI: 10.1002/marc.201800099

Design and Synthesis of Bioisosteres of Acylhydrazones as Stable Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin

Jumde V, Mondal M, Gierse R, Unver M, Magari F, van Lier R, Heine A, Klebe G, Hirsch A (2018)

ChemMedChem, 13 (21): 2266-2270DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201800446

Donepezil-melatonin hybrids as butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: Improving binding affinity through varying mode of linking fragments

Lozinska I, Swierczynska A, Moleda Z, Hartman A, Hirsch A, Czarnocki Z (2018)

Archiv der Pharmazie, 351 (11)DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201800194

2017

Fine-tuning Nanocarriers Specifically toward Cargo: A Competitive Study on Solubilizing Related Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

Wieczorek S, Remmler D, Masini T, Kochovski Z, Hirsch A, Börner H (2017)

Bioconjugate chemistry, 28 (3): 760-767DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00549

Insight into the complete substrate-binding pocket of ThiT by chemical and genetic mutations

Swier L, Monjas L, Reeßing F, Oudshoorn R, Aisyah, Primke T, Bakker M, van Olst E, Ritschel T, Faustino I, …, Hirsch A, Slotboom D (2017)

MedChemComm, 8 (5): 1121-1130DOI: 10.1039/c7md00079k

Saccharide-Containing Dynamic Proteoids

Liu Y, Stuart M, Witte M, Buhler E, Hirsch A (2017)

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 23 (64): 16162-16166DOI: 10.1002/chem.201703584

Molecular Biodynamers: Dynamic Covalent Analogues of Biopolymers

Liu Y, Lehn J, Hirsch A (2017)

Accounts of chemical research, 50 (2): 376-386DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00594

DXS as a target for structure-based drug design

Gierse R, Redeem E, Diamanti E, Wrenger C, Groves M, Hirsch A (2017)

Future medicinal chemistry, 9 (11): 1277-1294DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2016-0239

Molecular insight into specific 14-3-3 modulators: Inhibitors and stabilisers of protein-protein interactions of 14-3-3

Hartman A, Hirsch A (2017)

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 136: 573-584DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.04.058

Compounds Interfering with Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (ELAV) Protein-RNA Complexes: An Avenue for Discovering New Drugs

Nasti R, Rossi D, Amadio M, Pascale A, Unver M, Hirsch A, Collina S (2017)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 60 (20): 8257-8267DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01871

Pentapeptide-rich peptidoglycan at the Bacillus subtilis cell-division site

Morales Angeles D, Liu Y, Hartman A, Borisova M, Sousa Borges A, Kok N, Beilharz K, veening j, Mayer C, Hirsch A, Scheffers D (2017)

Molecular microbiology, 104 (2): 319-333DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13629

Bicyclic enol cyclocarbamates inhibit penicillin-binding proteins

Dockerty P, Edens J, Tol M, Morales Angeles D, Domenech A, Liu Y, Hirsch A, veening j, Scheffers D, Witte M (2017)

Org. Biomol. Chem., 15 (4): 894-910DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01664b

Designed Spiroketal Protein Modulation

Scheepstra M, Andrei S, Unver M, Hirsch A, Leysen S, Ottmann C, Brunsveld L, Milroy L (2017)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 56 (20): 5480-5484DOI: 10.1002/anie.201612504

Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry to Identify Binders of ThiT, an S-Component of the Energy-Coupling Factor Transporter for Thiamine

Monjas L, Swier L, Setyawati I, slotboom d, Hirsch A (2017)

ChemMedChem, 12 (20): 1693-1696DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201700440

2016

Proteoid Dynamers with Tunable Properties

Liu Y, Stuart M, Buhler E, Lehn J, Hirsch A (2016)

DOI: 10.1002/ADFM.201601612

Novel Strategies for the Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

Wagner S, Sommer R, Hinsberger S, Lu C, Hartmann R, Empting M, Titz A (2016)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 59 (13): 5929-69DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01698

Design and synthesis of thiamine analogues to study their binding to the ECF transporter for thiamine in bacteria

Monjas L, Swier L, Voogd A, Oudshoorn R, Hirsch A, Slotboom D (2016)

Med. Chem. Commun., 7 (5): 966-971DOI: 10.1039/C6MD00022C

Furoates and thenoates inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 allosterically by binding to its pyruvate regulatory site

Masini T, Birkaya B, van Dijk S, Mondal M, Hekelaar J, Jäger M, van Terwisscha Scheltinga A, Patel M, Hirsch A, Moman E (2016)

J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem., 31 (sup4): 170-175DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2016.1201812

Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin: Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

Mondal M, Radeva N, Fanlo-Virgós H, Otto S, Klebe G, Hirsch A (2016)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 55 (32): 9422-6DOI: 10.1002/anie.201603074

Fragment-Based Drug Design Facilitated by Protein-Templated Click Chemistry: Fragment Linking and Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin

Mondal M, Unver M, Pal A, Bakker M, Berrier S, Hirsch A (2016)

Chem. Eur. J., 22 (42): 14826-14830DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603001

Discovery of the first small-molecule CsrA-RNA interaction inhibitors using biophysical screening technologies

Maurer C, Fruth M, Empting M, Avrutina O, Hossmann J, Nadmid S, Gorges J, Herrmann J, Kazmaier U, Dersch P, Müller R, Hartmann R (2016)

Future Med. Chem., 8 (9): 931-47DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2016-0033

Discovery and Structure-Based Optimization of 2-Ureidothiophene-3-carboxylic Acids as Dual Bacterial RNA Polymerase and Viral Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

Elgaher W, Sharma K, Haupenthal J, Saladini F, Pires M, Real E, Mely Y, Hartmann R (2016)

Journal of medicinal chemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00730

Dissecting the Multiple Roles of PqsE in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence by Discovery of Small Tool Compounds

Zender M, Witzgall F, Drees S, Weidel E, Maurer C, Fetzner S, Blankenfeldt W, Empting M, Hartmann R (2016)

ACS chemical biologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00156

Application of Dual Inhibition Concept within Looped Autoregulatory Systems toward Antivirulence Agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

Thomann A, de Mello Martins, Antonio G G, Brengel C, Empting M, Hartmann R (2016)

ACS chemical biologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00117

2015

Combinatorial screening for specific drug solubilizers with switchable release profiles

Wieczorek S, Vigne S, Masini T, Ponader D, Hartmann L, Hirsch A, Börner H (2015)

Macromolecular Bioscience, 15 (1): 82-9DOI: 10.1002/mabi.201400443

New PqsR Inverse Agonists

Schütz C (2015)

Patent (EP 20150104.6-1110)

Novel PqsR Inverse Agonists

Hahmad M (2015)

Patent (EP 201523196)

Dynamic combinatorial chemistry: a tool to facilitate the identification of inhibitors for protein targets

Mondal M, Hirsch A (2015)

Chem. Soc. Rev., 44 (8): 2455-88DOI: 10.1039/c4cs00493k

Fighting malaria: structure-guided discovery of nonpeptidomimetic plasmepsin inhibitors

Huizing A, Mondal M, Hirsch A (2015)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 58 (13): 5151-63DOI: 10.1021/jm5014133

Harnessing dynamic combinatorial chemistry in the search for new ligands for protein targets

Monjas L, Hirsch A (2015)

Future medicinal chemistry, 7 (16): 2095-8DOI: 10.4155/fmc.15.146

Structure-based design of potent small-molecule binders to the S-component of the ECF transporter for thiamine

Swier L, Monjas L, Guskov A, Voogd A, Erkens G, slotboom d, Hirsch A (2015)

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 16 (5): 819-26DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201402673

Fragment growing exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry of inhibitors of the aspartic protease endothiapepsin

Mondal M, Groothuis D, Hirsch A (2015)

Med. Chem. Commun., 6 (7): 1267-1271DOI: 10.1039/C5MD00157A

Structure-Based Optimization of Inhibitors of the Aspartic Protease Endothiapepsin

Hartman A, Mondal M, Radeva N, Klebe G, Hirsch A (2015)

International journal of molecular sciences, 16 (8): 19184-94DOI: 10.3390/ijms160819184

Supramolecular chemistry … and beyond

Hirsch A (2015)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 54 (38): 11013-4DOI: 10.1002/anie.201506536

Validation of a homology model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXS: rationalization of observed activities of thiamine derivatives as potent inhibitors of two orthologues of DXS

Masini T, Lacy B, Monjas L, Hawksley D, Voogd A, Illarionov B, Iqbal A, Leeper F, Fischer M, Kontoyianni M, Hirsch A (2015)

Org. Biomol. Chem., 13 (46): 11263-77DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01666e

Exploring the chemical space of ureidothiophene-2-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of the quorum sensing enzyme PqsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Sahner J, Empting M, Kamal A, Weidel E, Groh M, Börger C, Hartmann R (2015)

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 96: 14-21DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.04.007

Advanced mutasynthesis studies on the natural α-pyrone antibiotic myxopyronin from Myxococcus fulvus

Sahner J, Sucipto H, Wenzel S, Groh M, Hartmann R, Müller R (2015)

ChemBioChem, 16: 946-953DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201402666

2014

A natural-product switch for a dynamic protein interface

Scheepstra M, Nieto L, Hirsch A, Fuchs S, Leysen S, Lam C, het Panhuis L, van Boeckel C, Wienk H, Boelens R, …, Milroy L, Brunsveld L (2014)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 53 (25): 6443-8DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403773

A doubly hermaphroditic chiral crown ether

Hirsch A, Sirlin C, Harrowfield J, Lehn J (2014)

DOI: 10.1039/C4CE00879K

Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents

Masini T, Hirsch A (2014)

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 57 (23): 9740-63DOI: 10.1021/jm5010978

Theoretical and structural analysis of long C-C bonds in the adducts of polycyanoethylene and anthracene derivatives and their connection to the reversibility of Diels-Alder reactions

Hirsch A, Reutenauer P, Le Moignan M, Ulrich S, Boul P, Harrowfield J, Jarowski P, Lehn J (2014)

Chem. Eur. J., 20 (4): 1073-80DOI: 10.1002/chem.201303276

Structure-based design of inhibitors of the aspartic protease endothiapepsin by exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry

Mondal M, Radeva N, Köster H, Park A, Potamitis C, Zervou M, Klebe G, Hirsch A (2014)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 53 (12): 3259-63DOI: 10.1002/anie.201309682

De novo fragment-based design of inhibitors of DXS guided by spin-diffusion-based NMR spectroscopy

Masini T, Pilger J, Kroezen B, Illarionov B, Lottmann P, Fischer M, Griesinger C, Hirsch A (2014)

Chemical Science, 5 (9): 3543-3551DOI: 10.1039/C4SC00588K

Benzamidobenzoic acids as potent PqsD inhibitors for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

Hinsberger S, Jong J, Groh M, Haupenthal J, Hartmann R (2014)

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 76: 343-51DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.02.014

From in vitro to in cellulo: structure-activity relationship of (2-nitrophenyl)methanol derivatives as inhibitors of PqsD in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Storz M, Allegretta G, Kirsch B, Empting M, Hartmann R (2014)

Organic & biomolecular chemistry, 12 (32): 6094-104DOI: 10.1039/c4ob00707g

Overcoming the unexpected functional inversion of a PqsR antagonist in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an in vivo potent antivirulence agent targeting pqs quorum sensing

Lu C, Maurer C, Kirsch B, Steinbach A, Hartmann R (2014)

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 53 (4): 1109-12DOI: 10.1002/anie.201307547

2013

Druggability of the enzymes of the non-mevalonate-pathway

Masini T, Kroezen B, Hirsch A (2013)

Drug Discov. Today, 18 (23-24): 1256-62DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.07.003

Total synthesis, stereochemical elucidation and biological evaluation of Ac 2 SGL; a 1,3-methyl branched sulfoglycolipid from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Geerdink D, Horst B, Lepore M, Mori L, Puzo G, Hirsch A, Gilleron M, Libero G, Minnaard A (2013)

Chemical Science, 4 (2): 709-716DOI: 10.1039/C2SC21620E

Imidazole- and Benzimidazole-Based Inhibitors of the Kinase IspE: Targeting the Substrate-Binding Site and the Triphosphate-Binding Loop of the ATP Site

Mombelli P, Le Chapelain C, Munzinger N, Joliat E, Illarionov B, Schweizer W, Hirsch A, Fischer M, Bacher A, Diederich F (2013)

Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2013 (6): 1068-1079DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201201467

Exploiting specific interactions toward next-generation polymeric drug transporters

Wieczorek S, Krause E, Hackbarth S, Röder B, Hirsch A, Börner H (2013)

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135 (5): 1711-4DOI: 10.1021/ja311895z

2012

Metal-ion-induced shape switching: Stereoselective formation of a dinuclear Hg(II) double helicate from a hydrazonobis(acylhydrazone) ligand

Schaeffer G, Harrowfield J, Lehn J, Hirsch A (2012)

DOI: 10.1016/J.POLY.2012.04.013

The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

van der Meer J, Hirsch A (2012)

Nat. Prod. Rep., 29 (7): 721-8DOI: 10.1039/c2np20013a

Biodynamers: self-organization-driven formation of doubly dynamic proteoids

Hirsch A, Buhler E, Lehn J (2012)

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134 (9): 4177-83DOI: 10.1021/ja2099134

Exploring the Ribose Sub-Pocket of the Substrate-Binding Site in Escherichia coli IspE: Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Cytosines and Cytosine Analogues

Schütz A, Osawa S, Mathis J, Hirsch A, Bernet B, Illarionov B, Fischer M, Bacher A, Diederich F (2012)

Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2012 (17): 3278-3287DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201200296

Total synthesis of (-)-doliculide, structure-activity relationship studies and its binding to F-actin

Matcha K, Madduri A, Roy S, Ziegler S, Waldmann H, Hirsch A, Minnaard A (2012)

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 13 (17): 2537-48DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201200512

2010

Ideas in chemistry and molecular sciences

Pignataro B (2010)

BookDOI: 10.1002/9783527630516

Bioconjugates to specifically render inhibitorswater-soluble

Hirsch A, Diederich F, Antonietti M, Börner H (2010)

Soft Matter, 6 (1): 88-91DOI: 10.1039/B915928B

2008

Synthesis and characterization of cytidine derivatives that inhibit the kinase IspE of the non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis

Crane C, Hirsch A, Alphey M, Sgraja T, Lauw S, Illarionova V, Rohdich F, Eisenreich W, Hunter W, Bacher A, Diederich F (2008)

ChemMedChem, 3 (1): 91-101DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200700208

The Non-Mevalonate Pathway to Isoprenoid Biosynthesis: A Potential Source of New Drug Targets

Hirsch A, Diederich F (2008)

Chimia, 62 (4): 226-230DOI: 10.2533/chimia.2008.226

Inhibitors of the kinase IspE: structure-activity relationships and co-crystal structure analysis

Hirsch A, Alphey M, Lauw S, Seet M, Barandun L, Eisenreich W, Rohdich F, Hunter W, Bacher A, Diederich F (2008)

Organic & biomolecular chemistry, 6 (15): 2719-30DOI: 10.1039/b804375b

2007

Phosphate recognition in structural biology

Hirsch A, Fischer F, Diederich F (2007)

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46 (3): 338-52DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603420

Nonphosphate inhibitors of IspE protein, a kinase in the non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis and a potential target for antimalarial therapy

Hirsch A, Lauw S, Gersbach P, Schweizer W, Rohdich F, Eisenreich W, Bacher A, Diederich F (2007)

ChemMedChem, 2 (6): 806-10DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200700014

2006

Double conjugate addition of dithiols to propargylic carbonyl systems to generate protected 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds

Sneddon H, van den Heuvel A, Hirsch A, Booth R, Shaw D, Gaunt M, Ley S (2006)

The Journal of organic chemistry, 71 (7): 2715-25DOI: 10.1021/jo052514s

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